Studies show a direct link between leadership style and organizational performance. Experts say that a more human-oriented management style tends to yield better results in terms of employee satisfaction. Employees who are motivated and engaged are more likely to try their best to meet the company’s goals and help your business grow.
Les techniques de management
Un petit coup d’œil jeté sur Internet en tapant « management des entreprises » ou « manager une équipe » sur un moteur de recherche, et les résultats tombent. Beaucoup de résultats… Il y a autant de managements différents qu’il y a de… managers. Mais une fois qu’on a posé cette évidence, il est aussi utile de préciser que toutes les techniques de management des ressources ne sont pas efficaces (loin s’en faut), et qu’on peut déterminer un certain nombre de qualités, méthodes et outils, qui différencient un manager efficace… d’un mauvais manager !
Qu’entend-on par « manager »
« Manager » selon Larousse c’est : organiser, gérer quelque chose, diriger une affaire, un service. Le mot « management » tiré du même dictionnaire désigne aussi au sens large du terme « l’ensemble des techniques de direction, d’organisation et de gestion de l’entreprise ». Dans le monde de la gouvernance de l’entreprise les hommes chargés de « manager » sont comptables des résultats financiers générés, et sont aussi responsables du capital humain nécessaire à l’obtention de ces résultats. C’est pourquoi un manager est aujourd’hui une personne qui calcule, et qui gère, des ressources matérielles et des ressources humaines.
Mais en y regardant de plus près, ces deux mots sont aujourd’hui utilisés avec un sens légèrement différent, plus étroit, que leur définition originelle. La présente fiche se concentre plus particulièrement sur les aspects humains de cette profession, le management s’entendra ici sous l’angle de la gestion des ressources humaines, du management d’une équipe, d’un groupe de collaborateurs ou de plusieurs groupes de personnes.
Les fondamentaux humains du bon manager
Quelles sont les qualités relationnelles qui sont aujourd’hui valorisées, recherchées, par les entreprises pour caractériser leur chef d’équipe ? Même si on peut reprocher à cette sélection le fait que certaines valeurs sont mieux considérées que d’autres selon les époques, l’expérience nous enseigne que les managers efficaces sont souvent dotés de qualités humaines que l’on peut distinguer ici de façon synthétique, et qui feront la différence quelle que soit la mission ou l’entreprise dans laquelle elles sont mises en œuvre.
Savoir communiquer : un bon manager doit être capable d’animer une équipe, et non pas seulement d’en être le chef, et pour cela il faut qu’il puisse coordonner, transmettre et recueillir efficacement les informations. Toutes les actions entreprises, toutes les remarques faites, doivent pouvoir trouver du sens et une justification : le bon manager sait animer un séminaire ou une réunion, conduire un entretien, il est avant tout un excellent communicant. Dans cette même direction le bon manager doit être capable d’écouter, comprendre, accompagner et motiver le personnel qui lui est confié, pour élaborer un management de projet efficace.
Savoir encadrer : le manager travaille en équipe, ni chef ni tyran, ni collègue comme les autres, parfois l’équilibre peut être difficile à trouver. Dans toutes ses actions le manager efficace doit aider ses collaborateurs à comprendre les règles et les procédures, pour mieux les respecter. C’est ici que le management par l’exemple trouve tout son sens : si le manager est techniquement bon dans son domaine, son équipe sera fondée à rechercher et respecter son avis et ses compétences. Encadrer n’est pas diriger : rester à l’écoute de ses équipes en privilégiant le dialogue est primordial. De la même façon, le manager peut, sans se disqualifier auprès de ses collaborateurs, savoir reconnaître ses erreurs lorsqu’il en commet, et pouvoir garder un regard critique sur son action et les moyens qu’il met en œuvre.
Savoir contrôler : le bon manager sait déléguer, faire confiance à ses équipes, et les laisser travailler en totale autonomie. Dans le même temps il doit pouvoir contrôler que le travail a bien été fait dans les règles, et que ses collaborateurs ont bien compris quelle était le résultat qui était attendu. Le contrôle n’est pas ici entendu comme un moyen de pression, mais comme un gage de crédibilité et d’efficacité.
Points clés des compétences managériales : les qualités techniques
Le manager est un homme conscient des enjeux économiques. La performance de l’entreprise est aussi et avant tout due à la qualité de ses produits ou services, le manager est donc supposé être en capacité de garantir cette qualité, dans un souci de réputation et de crédibilité commerciale. De la même façon il doit être soucieux de la négociation et relation client, et doit garder en tête le souci de gagner de nouveaux marchés, d’améliorer son efficacité marketing. Savoir garder ses clients, et savoir en trouver d’autres, voilà une compétence clé du bon manager.
Research the Different Management Styles
Whether you’re leading a small team or an entire organization, take the time to learn about the different types of management and their impact on employee performance and satisfaction. Later on, you can develop your own management style and experiment with various techniques to motivate your team and ensure that the company’s objectives are met.
Good managers are flexible and can adjust their leadership style to suit different teams, environments and even individual employees’ needs. They can shift from a democratic style to a laissez-faire style and vice versa depending on circumstances. According to the Hay/McBer Group and other experts, there are at least six different styles of management, including:
Other specialists have classified the different types of management into persuasive styles, laissez-faire or delegative styles, visionary styles, transformational styles and more. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses and may or may not work depending on the organization’s culture and goals.
The Authoritative Style
This management style is characterized by a clear hierarchy and strict policies in the organization. Top managers hold all the power and make decisions without consulting their teams or requesting feedback. Employees who fail to complete their tasks or execute orders will face disciplinary action.
Even though the authoritative style leads to faster decision making, it can also result in costly mistakes and affect employee morale. The decisions you make may not be the best for the organization. Sometimes, getting a second opinion can give you a new perspective and provide more complete information.
Leaders who embrace the authoritative management style have little trust in their employees and expect their orders to be executed without further discussion. The problem is that if your instructions are unclear or your employees don’t believe in your vision, they may not be able to get things done. Plus, there is no room for creativity and self-expression.
Top management techniques to motivate employees
Motivated employees take more pride in their work and are more likely to stick around. A study by indeed.co.uk discovered that compensation was, in fact, one of the least considered factors when employees ranked their happiness in the workplace. A strong work/life balance, as well as a sense of promise and ability to make a real change (apprentice and voluntary positions were among the highest for happiness) were found to be key motivating factors.
Provide supplemental training and educational opportunities.
Don’t let talented employees hit a plateau. Build training and educational opportunities into the framework of your business. If you’re a small company, this doesn’t have to mean spending big money on career coaches, conferences or fancy seminars. It could be as simple as designating mentors within the company. Making the effort to develop high performers means less turnover in the long run. A study by Robert Half UK suggested that the opportunity to learn, improve and enjoy meaningful work were among the most important contributing factors to employee happiness.
Offer bonuses to reward good performers.
Cost of living raises are expected and don’t serve as much of a motivator for employees, but what bonuses stand for still have a place in the modern employee’s perception of happiness. According to indeed, happiness can be caused by inspiring the following in staff members; autonomy, relationships, progress, meaning. While cash bonuses may be considered somewhat outdated (with flexible hours and fun, funky offices becoming popular ways to show employee appreciation daily) rewarding your staff in a way that correlates with these factors remains effective.
By all means, treat your whole staff to the non-monetary perks of free snacks, a communal ping pong table or the ability to work from home when they like, but for the stars of your business, a bonus that reflects the energy they put into your company is sure to be appreciated.
Make employee happiness a priority.
A happy employee is a healthy (and productive) employee. Happy employees are 12% more productive, and perks which encourage autonomy and a work/life balance are key to this sunny outlook. Schedule team happy hours or outings, and plan team-building exercises at least once a year. Put a holiday policy in place that allows your staff to take time off. Encouraging these “brain breaks” allows your team to come back feeling refreshed, recharged and more productive.
The main function of the financial management is to manage the finances of the organization. The functions include amongst others management of financial resources, management of receivables and expenditures and keeping proper accounts, management of cash flow, making timely payments, arrangement of finances for capital expenditure with minimum costs to the organization, and parking of savings for maximum yields etc.
Management of an organization is not a simple activity. On the contrary it is quite complex. Both internal and external factors affect the organizational functioning. Further there are several areas and elements which are required to be managed. Sometimes functioning of an area may appear to be in conflict with the functioning of other area. Smooth functioning of the organization depends on how the management of these different areas and elements are conducted. There are specific management techniques for each area and element. There are other techniques which may encompass entire organization. If these techniques are followed, it aids the proper and healthy functioning of the organization.
Management of an organization (Fig 1) can be broadly divided into two areas. These areas of management are (i) management of organizational internal elements which have impact on the organizational functioning, and (ii) management of organizational functions where the organization comes in contact with external agencies.
Internal organizational elements for management normally include (i) operational management which is the key to the existence of the organization, (ii) financial management for making the organization healthy financially, (iii) human resource management which deals with the management and development of the employees, (iv) management of organizational future which takes care for the future of the organization in the context of fast changing environment, and (v) management of safety, security and welfare which takes care of the employees’ safety, protection of the organizational properties and the external needs of the employees.
Organizational functions involving external agencies are (i) sales and purchase functions involving customers and suppliers, (ii) complying with regulations and laws where the organization comes in touch with regulatory authorities and government, (iii) societal functions where the organization comes in touch with society, media and local authorities, (iv) investors relations where the organization is required to defend its functioning to have the confidence of its investors, and (v) image building functions by which the organization not only impact its image but enhances its brand value.
Further the environment in which the organization works changes with time. In recent past it has changed very fast. The current environment of globalization, rapid technological advances and economic turbulence has increased the challenges for the management of the organization since it has affected both the internal and the external functions of the management.
A large number of management techniques are available to the management for the solving of the organizational issues. Selection of the proper techniques and then successful use of the selected techniques help the management to make the right decisions that leads to the effective and the efficient working of the organization. Right decisions taken at appropriate time not only enhances the processes, products and services of the organization but also propels the organization to deliver superior performance and profits. Successful use of such techniques requires an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of each technique, as well as an ability to creatively integrate the right techniques, in the right way, at the right time. The secret is not in discovering one simple solution, but in learning which techniques to use, and how and when to use them. .
In the present day environment, it is necessary for the managers to understand the application of the management techniques and to have the capability to identify, select, implement and integrate the optimal techniques not only to optimize the performance of the organization but also to improve it. The selection of proper technique is very important for obtaining the desired results.
Functions of the operations in the organization are to manage various processes of the organization which produces products and services for the customers. These functions include production planning and control, operation of plant and equipment, maintenance and upkeep of the plant and equipment, optimization in the use of raw materials, conservation of materials and energy, maintenance of environment, and management of technological and workplace discipline etc.
A big list of management techniques is available for the operational management. This list of management techniques include (i) working with systems and procedures, (ii) development and implementation of management systems such as quality management system, environment management system, and energy management system, (iii) quality circles, (iv) value engineering, (v) suggestion scheme, (vi) quality assurance, (vii) process and quality control, (viii) management information system, (ix) knowledge management, (x) inventory management and control, (xi) data based decision making, (xii) adherence to technological discipline, (xiii) annual budgeting, (xiv) cost control, (xv) total quality management, (xvi) statistical quality control, (xvii) six sigma, (xviii) maintenance management system, (xix) process management, (xx) process automation, (xxi) performance management, (xxii) environmental, energy and technological audits, (xxiii) analytical thinking, (xxiv) failure analysis, (xxv) disaster management and contingency planning, and (xxvi) adoption of standardization techniques etc.
Management styles interview questions
Knowing that, being able to ask the right questions about management styles is an important factor in choosing the right candidates. HR teams should be prepared with a management styles quiz for potential applicants, so that they can see how they will fit into the preferred styles of the organization.
Management styles example questions
1. A PR crisis is quickly unfolding and you and your team need to act now to handle it. What do you do?
2. There is an important project that you need to plan. How do you go about doing that?
3. Your team is going to miss an important deadline. How do you handle this situation?
4. Which of the following qualities is most important for your team to have?
5. What qualities do you not want your team members to have?
6. How would you like your team to feel about their jobs?
As a project manager, you should be responsible enough to delegate tasks to team members according to their expertise and area of specialization. Although employees should be allowed to experiment in other domains for gaining experience, the core work duties should remain associated with one’s particular set of skills.
Hire the Right People
Finding the right team members for your team is difficult, but it’s also crucial. Having the right talent in your team helps you keep your project’s productivity at its highest level. You can use the initial interview sessions to get to know potential candidates one-on-one to learn more about their talents, skills, and strengths. And you can use the gathered intel to make informed decisions when adjusting positions and responsibilities.
Effective goal-setting should be a crucial part of your team management strategy. Everyone on your team should clearly understand what they are striving for daily. Keep in mind that without clear, concise goals (short-term and long-term), your team is very likely to miss deadlines. Try to set goals as a team with a lot of discussion and brainstorming. Include every individual in the process to confirm you are all on the same page.
Inventory Management Process
If you produce on demand, the inventory management process starts when a company receives a customer order and continues until the order ships. Otherwise, the process begins when you forecast your demand and then place POs for the required raw materials or components. Other parts of the process include analyzing sales trends and organizing the storage of products in warehouses.
How Inventory Management Works
The goal of inventory management is to understand stock levels and stock’s location in warehouses. Inventory management software tracks the flow of products from supplier through the production process to the customer. In the warehouse, inventory management tracks stock receipt, picking, packing and shipping.
Inventory Management Techniques and Terms
When practicing consignment inventory management, your business won’t pay its supplier until a given product is sold. That supplier also retains ownership of the inventory until your company sells it.
FIFO and LIFO:
First in, first out (FIFO) means you move the oldest stock first. Last in, first out (LIFO) considers that prices always rise, so the most recently-purchased inventory is the most expensive and thus sold first.
Demand Planning and Inventory Management
Demand planning is an important part of successful inventory management. It is the process of determining how much of each item you anticipate selling, and when. Once demand is determined, inventory management follows the flow of goods from the supplier through production and ultimately fulfilling customer orders.
Inventory Management Formulas
Inventory Management KPIs
Effective inventory management plays an important role throughout the supply chain. There are many key performance indicators for measuring inventory management success throughout the different organizations in the business. Understand which calculations return the most insight into your business processes is important. To learn more, see inventory management KPIs.
Support valuable feedback
Feedbacks are an integral part of any work environment. As a project manager, you should nurture a culture where feedback is welcomed. This should work both ways, that is, if a task is being done successfully, don’t hesitate to appreciate your team members publicly, and if there are some shortcomings, team members should expect constructive criticism from you.
On the flip side, your employees should not be reluctant to share their feedback regarding work with you. It’s highly significant that you get the right type of feedback, at the right time, from your team members so that you can plan and act accordingly.
Even if there are no feedbacks to give or take, grab opportunities to check in with the team members and take regular feedback. This informal feedbacks are a great way to get a heads up on the progress of all the tasks and can also act as a valuable resource for gathering information from the team members.
Regular feedback from your end can also act as a great learning tool for your team to develop professionally as well as personally. In non-hierarchal organizations, it can become difficult to take regular feedbacks, but for effective team management techniques to pay off, it’s paramount that feedbacks are taken seriously.
Frequently Asked Questions
1. What are the Different Roles that a Team Leader has to Play?
A team leader is someone who keeps track and guides different team members that are working on the project. They are the ones who instruct the team to perform their tasks and guide them if they get stuck somewhere.
- Supervisor: This role is responsible to oversee the activities that are being performed by the team members.
- Communicator: This role is responsible to regulate different communication channels between the dev team, the stakeholders, and other entities related to the project.
- Goal Setter: This role is responsible to set the goals and milestones that the team has to accomplish to bring more value to the company.
- Strategist: This role is responsible to devise the strategy that the team has to follow if they want to complete their assignments and bring more value to the company.
- Organizer: This role is responsible to organize and keep track of all of the different tasks, documents, and employees related to the project.
2. What are the 5 key Management Skills?
3. What are the Four Main Elements of a Successful Team?