how to reference a reference within a reference
(adapted from the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual , © 2010)
This page reflects guidance from the sixth edition of the Publication Manual.
Citing a source that you found in another source is known as using a secondary source.
Your in-text citation should include both authors: the author(s) of the original source and the author(s) of the secondary source. For example: (Habermehl, 1985, as cited in Kersten, 1987).
(Fong, cited in Bertram 1997)
Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research document. In this case, only include the source you did consult in your references because you did not read the original document. Use the words ‘cited in’ in the in-text citation to indicate you have not read the original research.
A reference style is a standardized way of referencing your sources in the text and in the reference list. One example is to use parentheses in the text with information about the author and the year of publication (APA), another is to give the information in footnotes (Chicago).
In every subject field, there are preferences when it comes to how sources should be cited. Historians use footnotes, social scientists use parentheses in the text, and so on. There are a lot of variations in both parentheses and footnotes. Researchers need to adjust their reference style to the journal or publisher in question. However, as a student, it is important that you learn the basic principles of citing.
For example, if Bennett’s work is cited in a book by Stone (2013) and you didn’t read Bennett’s original work, list the source you did read (in this case Stone) in the reference list.
(Alibali, 1999, 2005)
Arrange by order of the reference list; use a semicolon between works:
Movie Reference: See our APA Guide Example
Creating an APA reference for media requires different information than an article or book reference. Formats and examples for a movie, and TV show episode are linked below:
What is important here is that you make it clear to your reader that you are not citing the book itself, but still stressing its importance. Depending on what citation style you are using, such as MLA or APA, you either underline or italicize the book title contained within the article title. So for example, if the article you are citing is called: “Why Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets is the best book in the Harry Potter series,” you would instead write: “Why Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets is the best book in the Harry Potter series.”
For more info on formatting rules for citation styles, visit our guides listed below:
This depends on how you are citing them. If you are citing them in-text more than once, and you are referring to the same source each time, then you can simply reuse that same in-text reference with a single entry on your references page at the end.
If you are citing the same author, but from different sources, you may have to follow different rules. Let’s say you are citing an author named Jane Doe three times. If each of her articles or books are published in different years, then you don’t need to do anything different than you normally would. Let’s say she published articles in 2009, 2011, and 2012. Then each entry would just be (Doe, 2009), (Doe, 2011), and (Doe, 2012).